A Background of Nostradamus' Beliefs and Practices

Nostradamus stated in a letter to his infant son Cesar that, had he wished to, he could have dated each prediction within the hour and day of election. Indeed, as we have already seen in his letter to Henry II, evidently the prophet was awaiting permission from the king to restore the original dates to each of his quatrains. In Nostradamus' own words: "I could have set down in every quatrain the exact time in which they shall happen, but it would not please everyone, and much less the interpretation of them, till, Sir, your Majesty has granted me full power so to do, that my detractors may have nothing to say against me." Sadly, thanks to the repressive climate of the Inquisition, this permission was never granted.

Thus, unable to be truly vindicated to the satisfaction of all, and due to a great deal of romanticization over the centuries by both skeptics and believers alike, much has been made by various commentators about Nostradamus as a master astrologer without peer; a necromancer and dabbler in the black arts; a "New Age" visionary who was well ahead of his time; or, at least by a few, a seductive and errant fraud. However, it is evident from his writings that the French seer held a somewhat low regard for most practitioners of that celestial art—astrology—which was then a science in transition. His letters also reveal a condemnation of the black arts and those things "magical," as well as a genuine and zealous faith in God.

Astrology—at that time called astronomy—was divided into two categories: "judicial," which involved the influence of the stars and planets on the destinies of individuals and of nations, largely entailing the drawing up of nativities (birth charts); and "natural," the forerunner of modern astronomy, dealing with the physical motions of the stars, planets, and luminaries based on meticulous observation with the naked eye and collection, collation, and classification of recorded data.

Judicial astrology exists today in the form of newspaper horoscopes, psychic hotlines, and numerous self-help volumes found in libraries and New Age sections of bookstores. Natural astrology is now the science we know today as astronomy.

Wishing to become a physician, at the age of 16, Michel de Notredame entered the prestigious University of Montpellier. There, among the many subjects studied, he was taught diagnostic and medicinal astrology—a form of the judicial. I make mention of this because it would appear that he could not have avoided the study of astrology even if he had wished to. There was nothing "diabolic" in his motivation or allure to astrology, even though the Christian right are fond of portraying him as a sorcerer and frequently mention Nostradamus' Les Propheties as one of a number of books that should be burned.

Nostradamus graduated as a doctor from Montpellier in 1525. There is no question that his education served him well. If for no other reason, history would have recorded him as the most miraculous plague doctor the world had ever known, curing thousands of victims afflicted with Le Charbon which had settled as a chronic pestilence in southern France. However, during an especially vicious outbreak in Agen in 1537, he was unable to save his first wife and two children (whose names are not known) from the same dreadful scourge that had wiped out one third of the population of Europe two centuries earlier. Broken, depressed, he wandered Europe for many years.

It was not until 1550, when Dr. de Notredame began penning the prognostications in his famous almanacs, that he Latinized his name to Nostradamus. This move may have been inspired by the Swiss prophet Paracelsus, whose real name was Theophratus Bombastus von Hohenheim. Like Nostradamus, Paracelsus was also a physician-turned-prophet and a contemporary of his, having died in 1541—only nine years before the first almanac was published. Nostradamus certainly must have read his work.

What exactly placed this healer and highly learned man upon the path of prophetic immortality no one will ever know. There are a number of popular legends which have circulated throughout the ages about how he established his reputation as "the king of the prophets," both in his youth and during the fateful years 1547 to 1550 (it was in 1547 that Nostradamus married his second wife, Ann Ponsart Gemelle). However, a discussion of these "yarns," mostly unverifiable, would serve no purpose here. Needless to say, by 1556 Nostradamus was Salon's greatest celebrity and one of Catherine de Medicis’ personal oracles.

There is no question, as we will discover, that the prophet found it necessary to practice both forms of "astronomy" during his life. Whatever his failings and fortunes as a judicial astrologer, Nostradamus made no secret to King Henry II in his 1558 epistle which branch of astrology he trusted most or from what book he drew his greatest inspiration:


All these figures are justly fitted by the Sacred Scriptures to the celestial bodies, that is to say, Saturn, Jupiter and Mars, and others joined with them, as may be seen more at large in some of my quatrains ... being by astronomic rule and according to the Holy Scriptures, in which I cannot err.


Nostradamus was also a person trapped by his fame. To safeguard his reputation and to preserve his alliances with Catherine de Medicis, the Duke and Duchess of Savoy, and numerous other aristocrats and nobles, it was necessary for him to make prophecies on demand. This inevitably meant resorting to judicial astrology to draw up nativities or to make personalized predictions.

It is doubtful that he entirely trusted the veracity of his results since his true prognostic power came in divine visions (so was his claim). Therefore, the fashion of his speech or correspondence was often crabbed, ambiguous, general, or obscurely worded when predicting the outcome of a marriage or advising on the wisdom of some transaction or other special undertaking. A variation of his predicament continues to this day in the persons of certain once-successful prophets whose miserable track records in tabloids, magazines, and talk shows testify to the enormous financial pressure they are under to make predictions on demand while seeking to maintain their credibility among their following (for Nostradamus, total alienation could have led to his being brought before the Inquisition).

In Quatrain 6.100, entitled "INCANTATION OF THE LAW AGAINST INEPT CRITICS," Nostradamus damns astrologers (a strong indication that he did not use astrology to forecast his quatrains), mystics, the illiterate and uneducated, and the worshippers of Islam and other non-Christian religions:


May those who read this verse think upon it deeply,
Let the profane and ignorant herd keep away:
Let all astrologers, idiots and barbarians stay far off,
He who does otherwise, let him be priest to the rite.


In his remarkable 1990 book, The Mask of Nostradamus, the famed illusionist and celebrated skeptic of the supernatural, James Randi (a.k.a. “the Amazing Randi”), sets out to discredit the French prophet and his predictions.

Mr. Randi spends much of the book exposing many of the interpreters of Nostradamus, along with contemporaries who favored him, as gullible, mad, or fame-seeking charlatans.

He also provides us with a valuable history lesson about the superstitious and religiously oppressive environment of the times during which the prophet lived. He throws cold water on some popular interpretations of a carefully selected batch of quatrains, then offers more reasonable theories concerning the meaning behind some of them. (I will confess that I concur with some of what he says.) But as for direct historical or physical evidence that Nostradamus himself was a fraud—which is Randi’s intended objective—he offers us very little, since it is mostly the "true believers" and interpreters of the Seer of Salon whom he rails against.

Most of the evidence he supplies concerning the man himself comes in the form of letters discovered in the Bibliotheque Nationale in 1961, and since translated by scholar Jean Dupebe. One example of Nostradamus' alleged fallibility is revealed in a paragraph described (but not quoted) by Randi concerning the testimony of a disgruntled client who feels he has been thoroughly cheated, claiming that every prediction forecast by the famed prophet concerning himself and his family was completely in error. I have to wonder why this particular letter was not quoted. Evidence that Nostradamus occasionally erred when casting horoscopes is not so amazing anyway. As I have already mentioned, this required the use of judicial astrology instead of divine inspiration. Because of his illustrious education, he was obliged to practice it anyway, trapped by his notoriety and pressure to make predictions on demand. Nostradamus would never have risked appealing to God directly to perform prophecy for profit.

Ironically, some of the scanty physical evidence Mr. Randi uses to purport fraud ends up vindicating the prophet instead. In one letter a client named Lorenz Tubbe, the representative of a German miner and merchant named Hans Rosenberger, writes: "The events that you predicted [in a previous letter] are only, alas, too true. I am following your advice of perseverance and patience." Mr. Randi suggests that Tubbe is possibly engaging in lip service here to ply more pertinent information from the seer. Elsewhere, Tubbe writes: "I recopied the nativity and have sent it to my master [Rosenberger], indicating to him that you have prepared a commentary of forty chapters. I knew those concerning the mines would please him, given his misfortunes." Later, in another letter, he profusely offers his thanks to Nostradamus, declaring: "Rosenberger's mines, it appears, are prospering." To this Randi has no other reaction than to engage in his other tactic: to avoid giving credit when credit is due by simply changing the subject.

In his Preface to the First Edition (Preface to Cesar), Nostradamus leaves his son, Cesar, little room for doubt what his position on the subject of magic actually was:


Furthermore, my son...I caution you especially against the vanity of the more than execrable magic, condemned of yore by the Holy Scriptures and the Canons of the Church, although judicial astrology is exempt from this judgment, for it is by this, together with divine inspiration and revelation, and continual nightly watches and calculations [natural astrology] that we have reduced our prophecies to writing.

Although this occult Philosophy was not condemned, I did not desire that you should ever be faced with their unbridled promptings. I had at my disposal many volumes which had been hidden for a great many centuries. But dreading what use might be made of them, after reading them I consigned them to the flames. As the fire came to devour them, the flame licking the air shot forth with an unusual brightness, clearer than natural fire. It was like the light of thunderbolts, suddenly illuminating the house, as if in sudden conflagration. Thus, so that you might not be led astray in the future ... I have reduced them to ashes.


We can only guess as to which items from his personal library Nostradamus condemned to incineration, but there is little doubt that some of these included Des Mysteriis Aegyptiorum by Iamblichus, the Corpus Hermeticum, and Michael Psellus' De Demonibus.

It is possible that the Prophet of Provence made claims of the use of magical props and other aids to impress his friends and clients. Some of these, according to whichever authority you care to believe, included a special mirror, a water bowl and brass tripod, a golden brazier of fire, a blue amulet, wands, and other assorted objects. It is believed by nearly all commentators that Quatrain 1.1 indicates that the bowl and tripod were used:


Seated alone at night in secret study
Resting alone upon a stool of brass;
A slight flame comes out of the solitude
Pronouncing that which should not be believed in vain.


A brass stool may resemble a tripod, especially if it has three legs, so some commentators hear echoes of Iamblichus in this verse. I do not see any magic rite involved here. I agree with famed Nostradamian Stewart Robb (1991) that Quatrain 1.2 may have a more mundane meaning attached to it as well:


With rod in hand put in the middle of the BRANCHES,
In the wave he moistens both the limb and the foot:
A fear and voice shaking through the sleeves:
Splendor divine, the divine is seated nearby.


According to Robb:


The prophet is ready to capture the divine inspiration on paper. He picks up the pen [the rod], grasps it with his five fingers [the Branches] then dips the pen into the inkwell, creating a tiny wave. He is now ready for the divine afflatus.


I rather suspect Nostradamus at times enjoyed humoring some of his more naive colleagues; all in an effort to maintain an erroneous, romanticized image that they held of him as some sort of wizard dressed in sorcerer's garb burning the midnight oil. In the following letter excerpt there can be little doubt that Nostradamus may have been having a little fun at the expense of one Francois Berard when he wrote:


After nine consecutive nights, from midnight until about four, my brows crowned in laurel, a blue stone on my finger, here is what I got from the good genie on your ring. I grabbed a swans-feather pen (he refused three times the goose-quill) and, at his dictation, as if transported in a poetical madness, I burst into the verses that follow. Then, turned toward our excellent genie, I asked him to teach me, for his faithful Berard, an alchemist without peer, the means of obtaining elicium and gold and for purifying pyrite. Then, the back of my neck ornamented with branches of laurel, and my forehead bound with a crown of laurel and periwinkle, I beseeched my guardian angel in order to obtain these transmutations, to inspire me with truthful oracles.


Nostradamus frequently gives glory to God for his visions, as he does in his Epistle to Henry II (as we have already discovered) and in his Preface to Cesar. He also expresses his conviction that there will be a second coming of Christ and a millennial reign in the Epistle and speaks of the Messiah and a New Jerusalem several times in The Centuries. Most of French society knew him to be a devout Roman Catholic as well as a dedicated monarchist. However, Nostradamus' Christian perspective appears to have been a great deal more sincere and zealous than anyone had ever suspected. His true faith is revealed in a group of letters written to the aforementioned Lorenz Tubbe. Hidden for many years by his son Cesar, the first is dated July 15, 1561, written at Salon:


Here passions that had already been aroused burst into violence between the Papists and the partisans of the true faith. On Holy Friday, a massacre instigated by a fanatical Franciscan was barely avoided. Like many persons suspected of Lutheranism, I was obliged to take refuge for two months at Avignon. Finally, the Count de Tende reestablished the peace...


Note also in this excerpt from May 13, 1562, three years before his death, where Nostradamus' sympathies lie. He identifies Lutherans as "Christians" and Catholics as “clergy,” “Hydra,” and “ignorant priests”!


What you tell me from Anvers has upset me completely. What a monstrous barbarity exercised against Christians! We live in an abominable period, and the worst is yet to come....Last February, the Estates General was held in Provence; they spoke mostly of religious questions. The popular ‘Hydra,’ did everything to prevent evangelical preaching, but nevertheless each city had its own ministers there.

At Aix, capitol of Provence and seat of parliament, the cathedral, Saint Sauver, is especially full of ignorant priests .... They used gold to buy the services of a nobleman, a certain Flassans. He used the worst kind of violence against partisans of the Christian religion. The clergy lend a strong hand to this man, who was defending their interests ....


The revelation that Nostradamus was, in fact, a closet Lutheran, an evangelist horrified by the Inquisition and a secret enemy of the "Papists," places this individual in a new light. As a result, his claims that he received his visions directly from God must be taken more seriously now than previously.


On the Reliability of Planetary Alignments

Clearly when the famed prophet converted his predictions from prose to poetry, he removed the dates from the vast majority of them. About five percent of the quatrains still retain astronomical clues indicating the timing of their fulfillment. However, it is difficult to determine whether he intended all of these planetary conjunctions and alignments to represent the exact dating of certain future events or, in other instances, to function only as approximations. After all, a miss of several years would not seem too great to someone plotting the time four, five, or six centuries in advance.

Moreover, one can not be certain whether, in some cases, the motions of the planets and stars were observed within the visions themselves or, in other instances, merely plotted afterward to conform to the time-frame revealed. Also, Nostradamus was restricted by form: a four-line stanza written in tetrameter alternating between iambic and dactylic does not allow much space for the sort of detailed information one would expect to find in, for example, a nativity chart, and still retain room enough to describe the events connected to the projected date. Some of these planetary datings only provide one with the month and day, but not the year (for example, “the Sun twenty degrees in Taurus”).

Another problem with the astronomical clues is something the French seer could not have possibly considered: the earth's north celestial pole. Since the pole's relationship to the north star is shifting subtly, these celestial projections will become increasingly unreliable. Between 1965 and 2065 this relationship decreases by half of one degree, then begins to increase again. In two thousand years, the pole star will no longer be Polaris, but a star named Alpha Cephei.


Celestial Signposts

Let us examine some of the alleged interpretations of Nostradamus' astrological datings as calculated by such prominent authorities as Lee McCann and Christian Wollner to determine the veracity of the prophet's observations. We will discover that some are surprisingly accurate: in one case, to the very year and month. But first we will begin with a dating of events which has proven to be either a remarkable approximation or a remarkable coincidence.


The Arab Prince, Mars, Sun, Venus, Leo,
The reign of the Church by sea will succumb:
Towards the Persian very nearly of a million,
Turkey, Egypt, the true serpent invades.


According to Lee McCann (1942), the above configuration occurred on August 21, 1987. August 2, 1990, was of course the historic dating of Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait and intimidation of Saudi Arabia. In April of 1991, Iraqi forces drove nearly a million Kurdish refugees into the mountains of Iran, and another million into the mountains of Turkey. Egypt was involved in the United Nations Arab coalition arranged against Iraq, and Turkey served as a northern base of operations for the United States. Saddam has forgiven neither country for their pro-Western involvement during the war.

August 21, 1987 is also significant in another way. On May 17, 1987—in a bid to draw the United States into the Iran-Iraq War—Saddam Hussein ordered an Iraqi warplane to fire an Exocet missile at the USS Stark, the resulting explosion claiming 37 American lives ("the reign of the Church [Christian navy] will succumb to the sea"). At the official level, Iraq has always maintained that the attack was accidental. On July 22, the U.S. sent 31 warships into the Persian Gulf to escort Kuwaiti oil tankers. Then on August 26, the United States signed a five-year economic and technical pact with Iraq, tilting its sympathies in the war toward Iraq. From that point on the U.S. fleet was periodically under attack by Iranian gunboats and Iranian missiles. One particularly dramatic exchange took place in October 1987, the same day the stock market crashed for the second time this century. Saddam's million-man army was definitely engaged against "the Persian" (Iranian leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini) in August, awaiting a massive invasion from Khomeini's million-plus-man army. However, the threatened invasion never materialized.

As for the final line, it indicates that relations between Saddam, or his successor, and pro-Western neighbors will reach a critical point sometime in the near future when Iraq launches either a simultaneous invasion of Turkey and Egypt or attacks one and then the other during two separate conflicts. This last line is a further projection that anticipates consequences of the events in the previous lines, a separate prediction which will occur anywhere from a few years to a few decades after the rest of the quatrain has been fulfilled.


To summarize then:


I would have to conclude that lines 1, 2, and 3 successfully predict the Iraqi attack on the USS Stark, the subsequent involvement of the United States in the Iran-Iraq War during its final year, and the Iran-Iraq War itself. The dating is an excellent “signpost.” The August dating may also reflect confusion on Nostradamus' part between the Iran-Iraq War and the Persian Gulf War. It is possible that he saw the second conflict as an extension of the first. Line 4 awaits fulfillment. Score one for McCann and Nostradamus.


Into Foix enters blue King Turban
And reigns less than a revolution of Saturn,
King Turban white to Byzantium's heart is banished,
Sun, Mars, Mercury near Aquarius.


This quatrain appears to describe a conflict between two Moslem leaders over the control of France. The white-turbaned adversary is defeated by a blue-turbaned monarch, then forced to retract his forces eastward to Turkey. Line 2 tells us that Blue King Turban will rule less than a revolution of Saturn (i.e., less than 29½ years). Line 4 is dated by McCann as February 18, 1981. Because of the date there is a remote chance that both this verse and Quatrain 2.2 are partly failed prophecies concerning the Iran-Iraq War and its conclusion (see next chapter).

Another thing that strikes me about 9.73 is the significance of the month and day. February 18, 1981 is not very far removed from another, more important date in history: February 11, 1979. That day marked the genesis of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and the rise of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. A short time later, in early 1981, the current spiritual leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei became Iran's first president. Although he usually dons a black turban, at times he can be observed in news video footage wearing a dark blue turban.

1981 was also the year that the most affluent terrorist in the world, Saudi multi-millionaire Osama bin Laden, joined fellow Arab mercenaries fighting alongside Afghan soldiers against the invading Soviet army during the 1979-89 war in Afghanistan. He soon commanded 20,000 of these "Afghan Arabs," all of who wore blue turbans as part of their battle uniforms. Now living in Afghanistan as a "guest" of the Taliban government, he and his pan-Arab terrorist network are suspected of a wide range of bombings that have killed and injured U.S. servicemen and American citizens both abroad and within the United States. Bin Laden sometimes wears Nostradamus' symbol of the third antichrist: the blue turban.

February 18, 1981 only misses by months the beginning of the Iran-Iraq War. Alternatively, it may closely approximate the date on which the blue-turbaned leader achieved political power—it obviously cannot refer to a day that he will conquer southern France. Then there is the less than 29½ year reign augured for the leader in line 2. From the onset of his struggle in 1963 to overthrow the Shah until his death as Iran's paramount spiritual leader in 1989, the Ayatollah Khomeini "ruled" for 26 years. Counting from 1981, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, thus far, has reigned as president and supreme spiritual leader of Iran for nineteen years. Saddam Hussein has been president of Iraq since July 1979—nearly twenty-one years at this time (June 4, 2000). Let us hope blue does not become his favorite color anytime soon. A revolution of Saturn from July 1979 brings us to January 2009; and from February 1981 to August 2010.


In summary:


Aside from providing fuel for some tantalizing speculation as to the identity of Blue King Turban, the planetary dating in this quatrain, as interpreted by McCann, has yet to be proven or dismissed. It is either a quatrain still awaiting fulfillment or a partial failure.

John Hogue, with the astrological advice of Dan Oldenburg, in his 1994 book Nostradamus: The New Revelations, appears to have dated the genesis of the Third World War:


The horrible war which in the occident is prepared,
The year ensuing will come the pestilence,
So very horrible that young, old, nor beast [survive],
Blood, fire, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter in France.


The configuration provided in line 4 is calculated by Oldenburg to next occur in July 2002. It last occurred on February 23, 1998.

At this writing (June 27, 2000) it certainly appears possible that the West could find itself entangled in any one of several possible conflicts by 2002, if not before. Tensions between Russia and NATO, which were high during Operation Allied Force in Yugoslavia and the Russian air campaign against Chechnya last year, have cooled somewhat. However, with the Balkans a continued hotbed for potential new conflicts, it is unlikely that relations between the two will remain relaxed for long. As for the Middle East, a number of recent developments in that region may trigger a major war by autumn 2001—a war which will almost certainly involve Israel, Lebanon, the Palestinians, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Russia, the United States, and its staunch ally Great Britain (if not the whole of NATO itself). Events in the Taiwan straits and other hot spots in the Pacific may also threaten to unleash a very dangerous war in the Pacific involving China against the United States and its allies in the region.

It is a recurring theme in The Centuries that a possible third World War will have its genesis in the Middle East, the Balkans, and the rest of Eastern Europe. It also very much appears that Russia will align with rogue Moslem states against NATO and the United States. As I have demonstrated in the first chapter, the focal points in the Middle East around which war revolves in many of the quatrains are Persia (Iran), Turkey (Byzantium), Egypt, and Iraq (Mesopotamia, the land between two rivers). The initial focal points in Eastern Europe are Hungary, Pannonia (Hungary and Yugoslavia), Slavonia and Dalmatia (Croatia and Bosnia), Albania, Macedonia, and Greece.

Yet another quatrain dated April 1998 by Lee McCann (1941) turned out to be disturbingly accurate:


In the year that Saturn and Mars are equally fiery,
The air is very dry, a long comet:
From secret fires a great place burns with heat.
Little rain, hot wind, wars, incursions.


In March 1998 a massive fire broke out in the Amazon rain forest of Brazil. The cause of conflagration was believed to have been hot temperatures and dry air caused by El Niño. The fires spread to neighboring Venezuela and by May were raging throughout much of South America and parts of the southern United States, most notably in Florida. It was the worst fire in recorded history.

Texas also experienced its worst drought (“little rain”) since the 1930s. Wars, raids, terrorist attacks, and incursions occurred in many parts of the world then and throughout 1998: in Kosovo, Kashmir, Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Iran. However, the comet portended in line 2 never arrived, unless it was a reference to Comet Hale-Bopp which appeared in March and April of 1997.

Again we can score a perfect bull’s eye for Lee McCann on the dating for this quatrain.

Returning to Quatrain 9.55, must we conclude that the West is on a collision course with global war in 2002? The horrible plague of lines 2 and 3, presumably caused by biochemical weapons or even a disease like ebola migrating from Africa and becoming a pandemic would then occur sometime during the ensuing year: 2003.

Fortunately for us, according to John Hogue's astrological advisor, the planetary alignment in 9.55 is a recurring one. Two other ominous datings for Quatrain 9.55 is September 2004 and February 2009. Unfortunately, the July 2002 dating happens to concur with the June 21, 2002 date for "a calamitous war under Cancer" calculated by Christian Wollner (see further on).

It is noteworthy that astrologer Christian Wollner (1926) actually converges on the exact day that Operation Joint Endeavor began—December 2, 1995—based on planetary clues in Quatrain 1.51, which reads:


The chief of Aries, Jupiter and Saturn,
Eternal God, what changes!
Then after a long century evil times return:
France and Italy, what turmoil!


This quatrain has long been considered by Nostradamus commentators as the harbinger of World War III—a war that will spread to France and Italy and turn nuclear. This stanza was dated by the Nazi astrologer Norab as set to occur in September 1994. This raises the question that perhaps a third World War has already been in progress for some time. Some world watchers, for example, have recently suggested that the Persian Gulf War never ended and that the West has been engaged in a "cold war" with Saddam since 1991.

Since September 1994—Norab's choice for the commencement of World War III—there have been an unending series of international crises, wars, and acts of terrorism. The following list of events, if all occurring at the same time, would seem like a global war:


  1. The bloodless U.S. invasion of Haiti in September 1994.
  2. The failed second invasion of Kuwait by Saddam Hussein in October 1994.
  3. Escalation of the Bosnian conflict following the “Summer of Sarajevo” cease-fire in the province of Bihac in November 1994.
  4. The beginning of the first Russian war in Chechnya on December 11, 1994.
  5. Escalation of the Algerian civil conflict in 1995.
  6. Deadly sarin and cyanide gas attacks in Tokyo (March 1995) and Yokohama (July 1995).
  7. Domestic terrorist bombing of the Federal Building in Oklahoma City in April 1995.
  8. A five-week Turkish incursion into northern Iraq in March/April 1995.
  9. Bombings in France by Algerian terrorists throughout 1995.
  10. The NATO air war against the Bosnian Serbs in August and September 1995.
  11. The war in Chechnya spreads to neighboring Dagestan and Turkey in January 1996.
  12. Friction between Turkey and Greece over disputed islets in the Aegean nearly leads to combat between the two countries in January 1996.
  13. China conducts war games in the Strait of Taiwan calculated to intimidate the Taiwanese and threatens to launch a nuclear strike on Los Angeles if the United States attempts to intervene (February and March 1996).
  14. Israel invades Lebanon and bombs Beirut, Sidon, and Tyre during the sixteen-day Operation Grapes of Wrath in April 1996.
  15. International terrorists kill Americans in Saudi Arabia (June 1996) and in the U.S. (TWA 800 and Olympic Park Bombing - July 1996).
  16. Saddam Hussein invades northern Iraq in August and September 1996.
  17. Israelis and Palestinians engaged in armed conflict in Jerusalem in September 1996.
  18. After a series of demonstrations and clashes in Serbia, Bulgaria,and Belarus (November/December 1996), Albania plunges into total anarchy, civil war, and chaos in March 1997.
  19. Continued fighting between Israel and Hezbollah and more Hamas bombings destroy the peace process for nineteen months. Western tourists are massacred by terrorists linked to Osama bin Laden in Luxor, Egypt, in November 1997.
  20. The Iraqi Weapons Crisis begins in October 1997. A standoff against the United Nations inspections regime begins as Iraq, the U.S., and Russia prepare for possible war. The crisis ends on February 23, 1998 with a treaty negotiated by U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan.
  21. In March 1998 rising ethnic tensions lead to warfare in Kosovo.
  22. India and Pakistan begin nuclear weapons tests and a conflict in Kashmir in May 1998.
  23. U.S. embassies are bombed by Osama bin Laden’s terrorist network on August 7, 1998. The U.S. retaliates on August 20 by bombing a chemical weapons facility in Sudan and a terrorist training camp in Afghanistan – both funded and operated by bin Laden.
  24. Clashes between Israelis and Palestinians reach dangerous levels in September and October 1998 – leading to the Wye River Peace Accord.
  25. Saddam reneges on the U.N. inspections treaty signed in February, forcing all inspectors out of Iraq on October 31, 1998. New crisis begins.
  26. Operation Desert Fox is launched against Iraq by the U.S. and Britain on December 16-19, 1998. Low-level air conflicts follow in the northern and southern no-fly zones and continue at this writing.
  27. Operation Allied Force is launched by NATO against Serbia on March 20, 1999. Ethnic clashes and clashes between civilians or militia with NATO peacekeepers follow and continue at this writing.
  28. Chechen rebels “invade” Dagestan and allegedly bomb apartments in Moscow in August 1999. This leads to a Russian operation in Dagestan.
  29. The war in Dagestan migrates into Chechnya. Second Russian war in Chechnya begins in September 1999. Conflict continues at this writing.
  30. Israel goes to war in Lebanon in February and May 2000. Israeli troops withdraw on May 22.
  31. China lays framework for future invasion of Taiwan with its new, “white paper” policy in February 2000. This includes contingency planning for nuclear attack against the United States. Threats against Taiwan continue at this writing.


Norab again speaks of war by sea coupled with a possible attack against a "Latin" country occurring on or around March 23, 1996: the day the first free democratic presidential election was held in Taiwan:


When iron [weapons] and letters are enclosed in a fish,
Out of it will come one who will then make war:
Across the sea a fleet will travel
To appear near the Latin shore.


In a somewhat convoluted sense, it appears that Norab’s dating was correct. As far as the first half of the stanza is concerned, the war games held by China in the Strait of Taiwan must have appeared so alarming to Nostradamus that he may have believed he was actually witnessing a terrible naval war. As to the second half of the quatrain, I need only remind the reader that in early March 1996 a flotilla of boats carrying Cuban Americans, U.S. coast guard cutters, a few American warships and a submarine traveled within a few miles of the Latin-American shore of Cuba to lay wreaths in honour of four Cuban-Americans who were killed when their planes were shot down by Castro in late February.

Regarding Quatrain 1.51, Wollner appears to have scored a bull's eye with December 2, 1995: however, only future historians will determine whether the placing of West European, American, and Russian armies into the boiling cauldron of the Balkans was the deciding factor which precipitated a wider, global conflict. After all, historians do not unanimously concur on the beginning of the Second World War. Some believe it was not a “world war” until the U.S. became involved on December 7, 1941. Others hold to the traditional commencement date of September 1, 1939, when Hitler invaded Poland. Still others cite the Spanish Civil War in 1936 or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 as the true beginning. There are even those—such as myself—who believe that World Wars I and II were the same war separated by an armistice marked by numerous, related, smaller conflicts.

Perhaps future historians will one day argue among themselves the true beginning of World War III. Time will tell, but I believe these datings by McCann, Norab, Wollner, and Oldenburg are, at the very least, grim signposts for the arrival of a major East-West war predicted by both Nostradamus and the prophet Daniel. Even if this conflict does not begin until as late as 2002 or 2003, the August 21, 1987, September 1994, December 2, 1995, and the February 23, 1998 datings should be considered very good approximations from a sixteenth-century perspective.

However, we should keep in mind the half-degree shift in the earth's north celestial pole as I mentioned earlier: by how much will this affect Nostradamus' projections for the twentieth and twenty-first centuries? A factor of five years? Ten years? Maybe twenty? Might some of these never occur at all?

Let us set up a partly hypothetical situation: the famed prophet is revealed in a vision that Turkey and Greece will ignite a global war in the Balkans on May 25, 2025. Subsequent visions covering the same general period reveal a severe drought in North Africa, Spain, and Italy and a catastrophic earthquake in India. More visions reveal that Iran will invade the Balkans on October 11, 2026, and Western Europe in July 2027. After the vision, Nostradamus sets out to plot the positions of the stars and planets to determine what conjunctions they will form on or after May 25, 2025, then records the result in one of his quatrains. He does this ignorant of the polar shift that will begin in the mid-twentieth century, unaware of the effect it will have on his astronomical projections. He also has no knowledge of the more gradual, subtle, and irreversible change in the pole's relationship to the North Star—an ongoing process that was not known about in his time.

Four hundred and forty years later along comes a modern astrologer to unravel this conjunction as it appears in Quatrain 3.3:


Mars, Mercury, and the Moon in conjunction,
Towards the South extreme drought:
At the depth of Asia an earthquake is reported,
Corinth [Greece], Ephesus [Turkey] then in perplexity.


Let us now say, quite arbitrarily, that the date this fictitious astrologer arrives at is April 10, 2011. And perhaps this conjunction will occur on April 10, 2011. But if Nostradamus originally calculated that the conjunction was not to occur until May 25, 2025, then obviously the quatrain is going to fail to come true on April 10, 2011. Let us go on to say that on or near May 25, 2025, the scenario presented in Quatrain 3.3 comes to pass, true to Nostradamus' vision; however, Mars, Mercury, and the Moon are not in conjunction. Nostradamus would be correct about the date and the event he originally foresaw, but his astrological description of the date would be tragically in error. (Quatrain 3.3, incidentally, is calculated by Dan Oldenburg to take place on July 2 and August 1, 2000.)

This may explain why some of the quatrains containing planetary clues have been very accurate and others quite flawed. We must also consider the interpretive skills of the astrologers themselves. Take the following discrepancy between the findings of Wollner and McCann concerning the following quatrain:


Saturn in Taurus, Jupiter in Aquarius, Mars in Sagittarius,
Sixth of February brings death,
Those of Tardaigne to Bruges so great a breach,
When at the Red Sea the Barbarian chief is killed.


According to Wollner the first two lines occurred on February 6, 1736. Lee McCann, on the other hand, dated this quatrain February 6, 1971. Since the above prophecy never occurred it would appear that Michel de Notredame was in error (and perhaps he was). But it is equally possible that Wollner and McCann are the ones actually in error.


Mars and the scepter [Jupiter] will be conjoined,
Under Cancer a calamitous war:
A short while after a new King will be anointed
Who for a long time will pacify the earth.


Wollner also calculated that the Third World War will be well in progress by June 21, 2002, based on the astronomical data provided in lines 1 and 2 of the above quatrain. Most interpreters have believed this dating to be accurate due to the large plethora of war predictions that happen to have various 1990s’ conjunctions contained in them. This, at first glance, might appear to be an example of circular reasoning since the validity of at least some of these planetary interpretations may be in question for reasons I have already specified. Also, this planetary configuration is repetitive, occurring again in December 2006 and February 2009. However, Nostradamus provided his readers with additional, more direct, dating evidence.


Literal Dates

Fortunately, either through accident or intent, Nostradamus did leave a small number of his quatrains intact with the original dates uncensored or coded. The coded dates either show up as "Council datings"—which we will investigate a bit later—or in some of the quatrain numbers themselves. He also boldly revealed the years of certain prophecies in his Preface to Cesar and Epistle to Henry II.


1999 Brings a King of Terror

In the year 1999, seventh month,
From the sky will come a great King of terror.
To resuscitate the great King of Angolmois.

Before and after Mars reigns by good fortune.

† Anagram for Angoumois (a department in southwestern France), Mongolois (the Mongol people, thus China or Russia and China), or Anglomois (either Anglo-Saxons, i.e., England, or the spiritual beings known as Angels).


This is one of the very few instances in which the French prophet supplies an actual date without qualification (i.e., "by the Liturgy"). Dated July 1999, it is the linchpin upon which every Nostradamian has hung the concept of a third World War beginning sometime in the 1990s or, before the appearance of Halley's Comet, in the 1980s.

Now nearly a year after the above date given, it has been my opinion that “a great King of terror” did indeed come from the sky very near the specified time. I always maintained that if this “terror” were to take the form of war, it would not necessarily have to be nuclear in nature. On March 24, 1999, NATO began a 78-day air assault against Yugoslavia. Pictures of Belgrade and other cities in flames, with fireballs on the horizon lighting up the night sky could be seen on the news virtually every evening. As the operation continued, so too did the casualties and the horrific nature of the bombing.

Who was the terrible “king?” If, as in biblical metaphor, it was a nation or group of nations, it would have been NATO itself. If a man, then it was U.S. President Bill Clinton. It was Clinton’s original intention to keep the air offensive going until well into August or September, thus still being in the process of bombing Serbia from “the sky” in July 1999. Had he succeeded there is no doubt that history would concur with Nostradamus that he was indeed “a great King of terror.”

However, the operation was cut short and officially ended on June 20, 1999 (the actual bombing was finished on June 9). The May bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade and the casualty toll it exacted sparked off a separate international crisis that had the three major nuclear powers – Russia, China, and the United States – at odds. This also gave Russia an opportunity to express its public outrage about what was happening to its Slavic “brothers” in Serbia. Soon Russia was negotiating with Slobodan Milosevic to find a diplomatic solution. In June, Milosevic finally “backed down” and agreed to a “cease-fire” and a NATO-proposed peacekeeping plan.

If this is what Nostradamus envisioned, then he was only off by less than a month.

However, there is another school of thought that reminds us that the calendar that was in use in Nostradamus’ day was not our current one, but the Julian calendar. March was the first month in that calendar. Therefore, in Julian reckoning, the seventh month of 1999 would have been September.

Quatrain 10.72 is adequately covered from this perspective as well.

In September 1999, Vladimir Putin, at that time still Russian Prime Minister, began launching air attacks against Chechnya and its capital city Grozny. The operation was “styled after the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia.” Thousands of civilians were killed and 300,000 more fled to neighboring Ingushetia and Georgia. By February 2000, Grozny looked like Nagasaki after the atomic bomb was dropped; its cratered terrain, from which an occasional beam or burned-out skeletal structure stood, resembled a lunar landscape.

The war continues at this writing (June 26, 2000) in the southern mountains of Chechnya—the same place where the last Chechen conflict played out.

Ergo, in Julian reckoning, either the nation of Russia or its soon-to-be-president, Vladimir Putin, was the “great King of terror.”

According to Erika Cheetham (1973, 1984, 1988), Nostradamus calculated the Julian calendar from the vernal equinox. Thus, the first month (in 1999) would have been March 21 to April 21. The seventh would have been September 21 to October 21. This also fits the Putin theory to a tee.

Currently there is a new group of Nostradamians attempting to make a case that “1999, seventh month” means the year 1999 plus seven months. This leaves us with July 2000, September 2000, or September 20 to October 20, 2000.

But who is the “great King of Angolmois?”

In the footnote I explain that there are many possible interpretations.

If “Angoumois” is intended, then a new French monarchy will be restored soon. This is born out in many other Nostradamus quatrains, some of which I presented in the first two chapters. On June 30, 2000, four days from today, the six-month rotating presidency of the European Union will fall to France and its president, Jacques Chirac. It will be Chirac’s first taste as leader of Europe —something I believe will become a more permanent status for him in the near future. Indeed, if a major world crisis occurs before December 31, 2000, and Chirac is perceived as a strong and wise leader, he may be asked to continue as President of the EU indefinitely.

I will add that this falls within a reasonable period of time following the “great King of terror” event in 1999.

If “Mongolois” is intended, then this could be the military threat now posed by China in the wake of the embassy bombing in Belgrade – its threat to invade Taiwan and risk war with the United States. Clinton, “a great King of terror” resurrects the “sleeping giant” from its slumber by bombing its embassy in Belgrade. Then again, the Mongols are also to be found in Russia and Central Asia. Vladimir Putin could be the “great King of the Mongols.” Then what is described in line three is Russia’s response to the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia: launching their own horrible air campaign in the Caucasus.

Clinton = “great King of terror.” Putin = “great King of the Mongols.”

The third interpretation, “great King of the English” could mean that Prince Charles will ascend to the throne within the next two years.

The fourth interpretation is religious in nature and could mean that Satan, the “great King of the [fallen] Angels” will become all-powerful on earth. Or, as some insist, the Second Coming of Christ is soon (“King of the Angels”). There are also some who point to the book of Revelation who believe this will be the prophesied “war in heaven” between the archangel Michael (“King of the Angels”) and Lucifer and his fallen angels.

And what of Mars?

If Mars is a metaphor for war and not a reference to the ongoing missions to the Red Planet, a third World War may not occur at all anytime soon or, if it does, it may be quickly snuffed out with a minimum of casualties (because Mars is said to “reign by good fortune” both before and after “1999 and seven months.”

In addition, line three could be indicating that the hero who will help achieve the end of the war will be Chiren, the new monarch from France (Daniel’s “great horn” and “first king of Grecia”).

Since we have been given plentiful reasons for taking the authority of “1999, seventh month” seriously, it is necessary for us to determine whether there have been any other literal datings that have been vindicated by historical events. Nostradamus has only provided us with a small number of other examples, but what he has provided is more than sufficient.


1792: A Climactic Year


Epistle to Henry II —

Beginning with that year we shall see a greater persecution against the Christian Church than ever was in Africa, and it shall be in the year 1792 at which people will think it to be a renovation of time.


Two points are mentioned in this prediction: an unprecedented persecution of the clergy in Europe—in this instance, Nostradamus, native France—and an official denunciation of anno domini with the declaration that 1792 would be considered the beginning of a new era. Now let us allow history itself to test this prophecy by describing the events that revolve about this most pivotal of years:



As can be seen, 1792, the beginning of the French Republic, ushered in both a new reckoning of time and an era of persecution of Christianity unrivaled in Europe since the time of classical Rome. Together, over 20,000 mostly innocent citizens were executed, several thousand of which were members of the clergy. Many monasteries and churches were also plundered during the Revolution and the ensuing Napoleonic period. Both Popes Pius VI and VII were persecuted by Napoleon, and for a time the Catholic Church was abolished by the emperor. So it would appear that Nostradamus' prophetic pen scored a decisive bull's-eye 237 years into the future of France.

More interesting, however, is that he went on to record dates and events only a paragraph later not destined to take place for another 145 years beyond the Reign of Terror!


Conquest of Europe in the ‘40s

Epistle to Henry II —

Venice, after that, with great strength and power will lift up her wings so high that she will think herself to be not much inferior to the strength of ancient Rome. And at that time great Byzantine sails, joined with the Italians by the help and power of Germany, shall hinder them so that those of Crete shall not keep their faith. In the Adriatic there shall be a great discord, what was united shall be put asunder, and what was before a great city shall become a house, including the Pampotan and Mesopotamia of Europe, in 45, and others to 41, 42, and 47.

And in that time and those countries the infernal power shall rise against the Church of Jesus Christ. This shall be the second Antichrist....The true vicar and the temporal kings, through their ignorance, shall be seduced by tongues more sharp than any sword in the hands of a madman. The said reign of Antichrist shall not last but till the ending of him who was born at the beginning of that age, and of the other in the city of Lyon, accompanied by the elect of Modena, Fulcy by Ferrara, maintained by the Adriatic, Ligurians, and the proximity of great Sicily.


This incredible narrative begins with the rise of Benito Mussolini in 1919 and describes his efforts to restore the glory of the ancient Roman Empire. Expansion throughout Africa was definitely a part of Mussolini's grand design. Libya was subjugated by Fascist Italy between 1922 and 1930. Mussolini added Ethiopia to his “empire,” in 1935, and Somalia in 1940. Il Duce also coveted Egypt, but the attempted Italian invasion was foiled by the British at Mersa Matruh in December 1940. Earlier, in 1936, Italy forged an alliance with Nazi Germany and entered the Spanish Civil War on the side of General Francisco Franco in hopes of expanding her influence in southern Europe and Morocco.

Mussolini's dictatorship of Italy, beginning as it did eleven years prior to Hitler's, probably impressed the French seer to a greater extent than was perhaps deserved. It is clear from the above excerpt that Nostradamus saw the lands occupied by Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, and Vichy France as a unified empire. The Byzantines are probably Bulgaria and Romania who, along with Hungary, were also members of the Axis. German airborne forces invaded Crete on May 31, 1941. The great discord in the Adriatic, namely the Greek Campaign in 1940-41 and the Yugoslavian Campaign of 1941, are well-documented events of the Second World War. The great city which became a house to foreign invaders, known also as the "Mesopotamia of Europe" (situated between the Seine and Marne rivers) is Paris which fell to Hitler on June 14, 1940. "Pampotan" is a word Nostradamus consistently applied to Great Britain, and here probably refers to the Battle of Britain and the London Blitz. However, if the Provencal oracle also foresaw Britain's occupation by Nazi forces in this prediction, he was in error.

The range of years Nostradamus provides to cover this period is extraordinary: 41 to 47, with 45 representing some special significance. Only 47 appears wrong, unless he is somehow indicating the massive emigrations to Israel preceding her nationhood in 1948 or the Russian Blockade of Berlin. However, Edgar Leoni believes 47 should be read as 37, which would indicate a more accurate range of 37 to 45. The sharp-tongued madmen were Hitler and Mussolini, and the temporal leaders they seduced included Victor Emmanuel III, Paul von Hindenburg, Edward VIII, Henri Philippe Petain, Pierre Laval, Francisco Franco, and Neville Chamberlain.

Nostradamus appears to believe this "second Antichrist" to be a European-African empire ruled over by three men. Adolf Hitler is most likely the one "who was born at the beginning of that age" since he was born in 1889, not far from the 20th Century and the first year of the current cycle of the moon. The collaborator who dies in Lyon is Pierre Laval, the last premier of Vichy France. He was executed by firing squad in Lyon in 1945. The "elect of Modena" is Benito Mussolini, designated Prime Minister of Italy by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1922. The office granted him full dictatorial powers until December 21, 1923. On April 6, 1924, Mussolini and the Fascist Party won 65% of the popular vote in the national election, thus guaranteeing the "elect of Modena’s" office until he authorized his right to rule by decree for life on January 31, 1926. All the regions named by the prophet of course came under Mussolini's control: Italy was not a unified nation at the time that Nostradamus wrote and would not be until 1861. All three men died the same year, 1945, and, just as Nostradamus stated, the "second Antichrist" passed into the pages of history.


Other Literal Evidence in Brief


The third climate under Aries comprised,
In the year 1727 in October,
The King of Persia by those of Egypt captured:
Conflict, death, loss: to the cross great opprobrium.


Most commentators feel that this quatrain relates to a peace treaty concluded between Persia and Turkey in October 1727. The treaty followed a Turkish invasion of Ispahan in 1726, which was thwarted by Ashraf Shah, the ruler of Persia, who succeeded Mahmud the Mad in 1725. Although Ashraf was victorious over the Turkish army, to receive recognition from the Sultan he ceded Kurdistan and portions of Azerbaijan and Iraq, which were then incorporated into the Ottoman Empire—a situation that brought great opprobrium to Christianity.

The Turks are here considered to be "those of Egypt" because Egypt then belonged to the Ottoman Empire. However, I find this phrasing a bit awkward. Would we have called the British "those of America" during our colonial history? Would we call the United States "those of Puerto Rico"? In truth the Egyptians were "those of Turkey" in 1727, not the other way around. In addition, even though Ashraf Shah was conciliatory in handing the captured territories back to Turkey, how can one say that he was "captured" when it was largely Turkish blood that flowed on the battlefield of Ispahan and Turk forces that were ultimately defeated?

I do not know what the "third climate under Aries" in line 1 is supposed to signify, but I tend to believe this to be a "council dating," which I will be discussing shortly, rather than a literal one. However, if I am in error, I am willing to concede that this verse, despite its flaws, can be considered a near success.


666: The Great Fire of London?

2.51 (Popular translation) —
The blood of the just to London will make complaint,
Burnt by fire in three times twenty and six:
The antique lady will topple from her high place,
And of the same sect many will be destroyed.


2.51 (My translation) —
The just blood at London will be at fault,
Burnt by firebolts of twenty, three the six [666]:
The mad lady falls from her high place,
Also several of her sect will be killed.


Supposedly the just blood which was spilled belonged to England's king: Charles I, executed in 1649. Most Nostradamians hold that this is a vision of the Great Fire of London that served as divine punishment for the king's beheading (some seventeen years later). "Three times twenty and six," in the first stanza, does equal 66, representing the year 1666: the year of the great London fire that occurred from September 2nd to the 9th.

Unfortunately, de vint trois les six, when translated, means "of twenty, three the six." Line 2, modernized somewhat, would then read “burnt by twenty firebolts, three the six.” “Three the six” either means “three times six” or 18, which is meaningless, or it indicates three sixes, 666, the biblical number of the beast.

However, I am reminded that it was common practice in medieval times to drop the thousand from years, thus 1558, for example, would appear as 558. There are many headstones from that time which bear this out. Ergo, 666 may indeed represent 1666.

However, "antique," in the context of the woman or "lady," means "antic" as in "eccentric" or "mad" rather than "old." Thus, it is unlikely that St. Paul's Cathedral, which was completely gutted by the fire, is being referred to here. It sounds very much as though the mad woman is an apostate of Hell, possibly the personification of the Whore of Babylon or someone like her, perhaps a high-priestess of the Antichrist of the Apocalypse. If London is destroyed by "twenty firebolts," it is more likely that Nostradamus is describing a nuclear strike on the city against which twenty missiles are launched, making it an overkill sector. Thus it is very difficult to determine if the year 1666 is intended in this verse at all or whether the number 666 is signaling the time of Armageddon.


1609: The Election that Wasn’t

The Roman Clergy, in the year 1609,
At the head of the year will have an election.
One of grey and black from Campania will issue forth,
Never was there one so evil.


This prediction serves to remind us that not all future events are “fixed.” In 1609, Pope Paul V fell seriously ill and was not far from death. However, he miraculously recovered, thus defying whatever fate Nostradamus originally foresaw in store for the papal seat.


The Council Datings

Henry C. Roberts (1947) attributed an unusual dating method to the prophet of Provence. Several quatrains which appear in The Centuries contain enigmatic phrases that appear to modify years which are stated in the same lines. Many commentators today still ponder over them, but Roberts is positive that the mysterious phrases refer to the first ecumenical council of the Church: the Council of Nicaea, held in 325 AD. The method he proposed is to simply add 325 to the given year to arrive at the true year for each prophecy's fulfillment.

Before exploring this approach, however, I should point out that there were two councils held early in the history of the Church and that both were as equally important. Beside the Council of Nicaea there was another meeting held in 451 AD called the Council of Chalcedon. Thus, it is possible either 325 or 451 need to be added to the mysterious dates.


1995 - 2007: Islamic Extremism Spreads from Algeria, Leading to the Overthrow of the King of Morocco

At break of day, at second crow of the cock,
Those of Tunisia, of Morocco, and of Algeria,
By the Arabs the King of Morocco is captured,
In the year 1670, by the Liturgy.


Roberts holds "the Liturgy" to be the Council of Nicaea, but maintains that the year to be added is 1607 (Nostradamus sometimes "chopped" his words to fit the scansion, thus sept could mean seven or seventy). He adds the Council's year of 325 to 1607 and arrives at 1932, the year of the French pacification of Morocco and the start of rebellions in Spanish Morocco against the new republic in Spain. However, despite Morocco's eventual involvement in the Spanish Civil War, there was never a coup, let alone one orchestrated by neighboring Tunisia and Algeria.

However, if one reads the year in Quatrain 6.54 as being 1670, added to 325, the events in this stanza hold a far more realistic significance concerning events that began taking place in 1995 and which may lead to the prophecy's fruition within the next few years. The current drive in Algeria by insurgents to establish an Islamic fundamentalist state fashioned after Iran's has been a reality since the victory of the Islamic Salvation Front in Algerian elections held in 1992, but then ruled illegal by the pro-French secular government. Since late 1994, France and Algeria have been plagued by a rash of terrorist bombings linked to the Islamic Salvation Front. Along with a spate of other terrorist incidents in Algeria, including several hijackings, hundreds have been killed or injured over the ensuing months. Budding Islamic groups, sympathetic to the Algerian rebels' cause, are also beginning to emerge in Tunisia and Morocco.

In Quatrain 1.73, Nostradamus warns that "Tunisia and Algeria will be stirred up by the Persians [Iranians]." Iran's growing influence in Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia, as well as its encouragement of the fundamentalist Algerians and support of Libyan dictator Moammar Gadhafi, may be a foretaste of things to come. The pro-Western son of the late Moroccan King Hassan II may have just cause for concern during the next five-to-seven years as the tentacles of Islamic extremism reach out from Tehran and Kabul to grasp the African nations, with Libya's complicity.

However, depending on the translation, 1607 or 1670, the next time these inauspicious years will occur, using the Council of Chalcedon (451 AD) rather than Nicaea to represent "the Liturgy," is 2058 or 2121. As we will later discover, neither of those years correspond well to the additional evidence that will be presented.


Two Quatrains: 2025 and 2028 - Russia Conquered by the Turko-Tartar Nations


Long before these events (which appear in 1.48),
Those of the East by virtue of the Moon:
In the year 1700 will cause great destruction,
Subjugating nearly the entire territory of Aquilon.

In the year 1580, more or less,
One will await a very strange century:
In the year 1703, by heaven's witnesses,
Several kingdoms, one to five, will change.


Roberts, using the Council of Nicaea again, dates the events in Quatrain 1.49 as occurring in the year 2025 AD (1700 + 325). Since the crescent moon is the symbol of Islam, the people of the Moon are obviously Moslems. According to Roberts, Aquilon, the land of the North, here representing Russia, will be conquered by the Arabs in the year 2025. That scenario was, of course, interpreted long ago, back when there was a Soviet empire and Iran was a pro-Western monarchy, leaving only the Arab states to fulfill the prediction. Today the Soviet Union is no more, and a vast block of Central Asian, Moslem republics sit at Russia's feet absorbing the incessant propaganda efforts from their large neighbor to the south. Obviously Azerbaijan, Abkhazia, and the enclaves of Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia, and Tatarstan also must be considered in the equation.

In Quatrain 6.2, 1580 equals 1905 using Roberts' method, which is close enough to 1914 and the outbreak of World War I as far as he is concerned (“1905, more or less”). I would tend to agree that the 20th Century doubtlessly appeared to be a very strange century indeed to the French seer. Thanks to the trigger phrase, "by heaven's witnesses" or "the heavens are witness" (Nicaea again), the year 1703 becomes 2028, and Mr. Roberts sees the conquest of five nations. Whether he ties those events in with the ones described in Quatrain 1.49 I do not know, but the timing is very close. I feel that the second half of 6.9 describes nothing less than the completion of the Turko-Tartar conquest of Russia along with four of her northern neighbors.

However, when dealing with an assertion such as this, historical or statistical support is not possible. Nor can we rely on current developments in the world scene when dealing with events predicted in the more distant future. At best we can project ahead by observing contemporary trends and leaders—particularly leaders with blood heirs who will one day come to power by succession—no more than forty to fifty years. Also, such speculation is at best fragmentary.

We know, for example, that Charles, Prince of Wales, is destined to be the next King of England and that his eldest son, William, is likely to succeed him. We also know that Prince Phillippe will almost certainly one day succeed Belgium's King Albert II and that the Gadhafi dynasty will probably continue in Libya. One can also speculate that there is a very good chance that one day either Gennady Zyugonov, Alexander Lebed, or Vladimir Zhirinovsky will contest the rule of Vladimir Putin and become the next leader of Russia. But who will succeed them? Who can determine Gerhard Schroeder’s or Slobodan Milosevic's political successors? Who will lead Italy into the 21st Century?

We can also arrive at conclusions, based on computer models, the effects global warming or continued ozone depletion will have on our planet well into the next century. We have a good idea that water will become a scarce human resource in the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and southern Asia and that, for example, war could easily break out between Turkey and Iraq if the Turkish government ever decided to cut the flow of water from the Euphrates River. We can speculate that one day tensions will increase between the poor countries of the geopolitical South and the opulent nations of the North. But who knows how much longer China or North Korea will remain communist? Will Russia ever take Alaska by force? At what point in the future, if ever, will Western nations turn completely away from Christianity and replace it with another religion and which nations will these be? Who can say when another spectacular comet like 1997’s Comet Hale-Bopp will make an appearance or a yet-to-be-discovered asteroid will slam into the earth?

One can attempt to use astrology or numerology to determine future events. Thus far, all astrologers I have read have had a rather low batting average despite their best efforts. I have not seen numerological forecasts regarding world events attempted.

As I mentioned in an earlier footnote, I have developed a system of numerology I call base 7 numerology and have had an accuracy rate of 81.4% in predicting events for 1996, and 79.6% for 1997, 81.4% again in 1998, and 87.7% in 1999. That means between 21.3% and 13.3% of my predictions may currently be in error and which 21.7% to 13.3 % is anyone’s guess. It is also possible that my accuracy rate will drop significantly some years and rise during others. Four trial runs are seldom conclusive enough for most scientists to declare “Eureka!” so I too must remain somewhat skeptical about the system I am using as I face each new year.

Visions, whether in conscious or subconscious state are also useful; but they are rarely accompanied by dates. Successful visions I have experienced in dreams have taken anywhere from four months to ten years to come true. Some visions I have experienced since early 1996 are only recently beginning to be fulfilled: like the episodic military crises the U.N., the U.S., and Britain experienced with Iraq (and will again), the great threat of war in the Middle East and Persian Gulf, and the deteriorating relationship between Russia and the U.S. coupled with dangers of a nuclear war or a nuclear arms race. Others may not be fulfilled for many more years or, perhaps, not at all.

Such are the limitations of human speculation and divination. Regarding far future prophecies, the next best thing one can do to determine the likelihood of a predicted event coming true is to see if other prophetic evidence exists to support the interpreter's contention. This is especially useful if the evidence is corroborative, that is, from a source other than the prophet being studied. The next best evidence comes from the subject himself who made the prediction first in the form of other prophecies that may shed further light on the portended event. Such evidence would then be considered augmentative, although skeptics would justifiably argue that this would simply be an exercise in circular reasoning. Nevertheless, there is no other way to test the potential veracity of a specific prognostication if it is to occur in the remote future. Obviously, the best evidence, in the absence of contemporary observation, is corroborative.

For example, if I wished to test Roberts' theory of the Nicaea datings in 1.49 and 6.2 which led me to believe that Russia will be conquered by her Central Asian neighbors between AD 2025 and 2028, I would wish to see if any corroborative or augmentative evidence exists to help support my contention. Such evidence does:


Corroborative —

In 1969, prophet Jeane Dixon predicted that China will be at war with Russia from AD 2020 to 2037. She went on to predict that the following five nations will fall to the invaders by 2037: Russia, Finland, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark.


China may not exactly be Kazakhstan or Tajikistan, but the Mongol likeness of the peoples is close enough to take Ms. Dixon's prophecy and Nostradamian Roberts' interpretation seriously. Both concur that the conflict will begin in the 2020s. Their major difference is on when the conquest will be completed: Dixon says 2037; Nostradamus, according to Roberts, indicates 2028. Both also concur that a total of five northern nations will be conquered and occupied by the Asian armies at the terminating year and Jeane Dixon even names them.


Augmentative —

In Nostradamus' Epistle to Henry II we are told that the "great Empire of Antichrist" will descend upon Europe from "the Attila" (Russia, Siberia, Central Asia, and Mongolia) with the aid of "Xerxes" (ancient Persia, now Iran).


In the context of the Epistle's prophetic chronicle, Nostradamus places the invasion of Europe by the Empire of Antichrist after a major European conflict involving three famous royal brothers, their nephew, leaders from Belgium, upper Germany, Greece, and "barbarians" from North Africa. We are also led to understand that for an indefinite time prior to this a great global war which Nostradamus calls "the First Holocaust" will have already taken place. It is not difficult to deduce that this past-tense first war is probably World War III, a war that he only discusses in his quatrains and never in his prose.

Since he indicates that a coming world crisis will have its origins in events that took place before and after July 1999 (Quatrain 10.72), we can deduce that the Asiatic invasion of Europe from the North (World War IV) will occur sometime near the middle of the 21st Century.

Now, there are only two ways this Islamic Empire of Antichrist can invade Europe from Russia. One way is if Russia voluntarily becomes an Islamic state and agrees to become a base of operations for Central Asian armies to launch their campaign against Europe. The other is for Russia herself to be conquered and conscripted by these invading forces.

Quatrain 1.49 indicates that it will be the latter of these two scenarios, with Russia being attacked by "those of the Moon [Moslems]" in 2025. Quatrain 6.2 informs us that the conquest of Russia and four of her Northern neighbors will be completed in the year 2028. Jeane Dixon has Russia locked in a losing battle for its existence as a nation against Oriental forces from 2020 until 2037.

The corroborative evidence mounts. The early 16th-century Swiss prophet Paracelsus predicted that Europe will be invaded from the North during “the great and fearful eclipse of the sun.” Nostradamus concurs in his Epistle: before Europe is invaded by “the great Empire of Antichrist,” he says that “there shall precede a solar eclipse, the most dark and obscure that was since the creation of the world.” The 15th-century prophet, Robert Nixon, also known as the Cheshire Idiot, predicted that “foreign nations shall invade England with snow on their helmets, and shall bring plague, famine and murder in the skirts of their garments.” As I mentioned in Chapter 3, Mother Shipton, the Brahan Seer, and even the Great Pyramid of Cheops forecast this event.

What are the chances against Dixon, Nixon, Mother Shipton, Paracelsus, and Nostradamus arriving at the same future scenario independently? Or are we to believe that Jeane Dixon stole a prediction from Nostradamus and that Nostradamus borrowed an idea by Paracelsus and that Paracelsus embellished on oracles recited by the Cheshire Idiot and Mother Shipton? Perhaps they also read the prophecies attributed to Merlin in their spare time besides. It will be nearly thirty years before we will begin to know if their common vision will be vindicated; but I believe we have something of a linchpin here, a means to achieve the breakdown of future history into various eras. And there are many other linchpins to be found as well.


All Roads Lead to 2242 - 2243

According to the Book of Enoch, from the creation of Man until the Kingdom of the Messiah there is to be a period of 7,000 years. However, most Bible scholars believe this period will be only 6,000 years in length, with the seventh millennium reserved for Christ's thousand-year reign on earth. Nostradamus was obviously committed to the older, apocryphal belief since he states that the enemies of Christ would begin to gather strength early in the "seventh millenary" and be ultimately destroyed at the millennium's conclusion in both his Preface to Cesar and Epistle to Henry II. His views also definitely parallel the New Testament's for at the end of his Epistle he describes the final years of human history as being ruled over by the apocalyptic Antichrist then followed by the establishment of Christ's millennial kingdom.

Christian fundamentalists—especially the so-called "televangelists"—have been telling us for years that Armageddon and the Second Coming will occur somewhere very close to the vicinity of the year 2000 by adding 6,000 to 4000 BC, the supposed beginning of human civilization. They have concluded this by combining two disparate biblical elements. The first is based on the claim in the Book of Genesis that God created the earth and the heavens in six days then rested on the seventh. The second is a biblical quotation that states that “a day with the Lord is as a thousand years.”

If only the universe was so orderly that we could tie things up so neatly in a perfect package with such a simplistic little bow! Do they dare to believe that God keeps the same calendar that they do? Indeed, keeping the idea of “God's calendar” in mind, would it not make more sense to add 6,000 years to the beginning of the Hebrew calendar (3760 BC) rather than to 4000 BC? As we will discover, Nostradamus does something quite similar to that in his Epistle to Henry II.

Because, along with most evangelicals, he is a member of the “2000 club,” Pat Robertson in 1992 predicted that the Antichrist would come to power in January 1993 during the formation of the European Union and rule for seven years by which time, in early 2000, the Battle of Armageddon would be waged. Since it is now June 28, 2000, I suppose Mr. Robertson has been forced to admit that the beast is in hiding or that Armageddon and the Second Coming are going to arrive a little late. He has no idea how late!

The Bible itself, setting aside Nostradamus for the moment, contains a great deal of unfulfilled prophecy. Some of it, such as Daniel's future chronology that begins during a coming war between Iran and the West, is multi-generational in scope and will likely take decades, if not centuries, to reach completion. Ezekiel's “Gog, prince of Meshech and Tubal,” has yet to appear to terrorize the world in yet another conflict. Jeremiah's “King of Babylon” may or may not be in power; however, a major war in the Middle East leading to the total immolation of Iraq is at best somewhere on the horizon. Regarding the Book of Revelation we have yet to proceed from the time of the Four Horsemen to the great earthquake of the sixth seal. Only after that will the seventh seal be opened to begin the age of the seven trumpets—and it is not until the seventh trumpet is sounded that the seven-year era of Tribulation will begin.

When will human history end and a new, messianic age begin? No one knows for certain. However, the premise of this book revolves around what Nostradamus—the most accurate seer since the time of the biblical prophets —believed about that time and our time and all that will transpire between the two. Although he definitely held an opinion on the subject, whether it will prove to be correct is not something anyone, including myself, can guarantee. The best that I can do is to look into the mind of the prophet, based on the evidence, and offer the world the view I deduce he held of future history—a view which I believe has thus far been only partly understood by centuries of interpreters.

Nostradamus told his son, Cesar, that seven thousand years would pass between the time of Man's creation until the Second Coming of Christ. In Chapter 2, which dealt with the Epistle to Henry II, I presented two different sections wherein the prophet provided the data needed to arrive at a date of origination to which these 7,000 years could be added in order to determine the terminal year of human history: the time of Armageddon. In one paragraph, by adding up the numbers provided by Nostradamus, equaling the years elapsed from Adam to Christ, we arrived at either the year 4757 or 4758 BC. In another paragraph, where the sum (4092) was not equal to the year of creation which the prophet gave, 4173 BC, we determined that this was a deliberately inaccurate date presented to confuse the Inquisition and to cast doubt on his mental faculties to all those who would desire to cause him harm. He further confuses the arithmetic in that section by stating that some of the years being added are solar and others lunar and casting doubt on how many there are of each.

Thus, by adding 7,000 to these creation dates, he offers three possible years for Armageddon to take place: 2242 - 2243 AD, 2827 AD, or 2908 AD. However, to those with the wisdom to check the clues in his quatrains, it becomes obvious which of the three he held to be correct.

In his Epistle to Henry II, Nostradamus tells the king that, following the reign of the Antichrist and his slaughter of the Innocents, much of the world—especially in the North—will be buried by a monstrous deluge for many years. Indeed, it would appear that Northern Europe, like Atlantis, will remain permanently submerged. Concurrent with this partial global "cleansing," during which most of mankind's knowledge and technology will be wiped out, will be the establishment of Christ's kingdom in the Middle East, a kingdom that will soon become an empire over those nations not destroyed by fire and flood. Nostradamus establishes a dating for when the fiery Armageddon and then the Deluge will occur:


What a great loss—alas!—there will be to letters
Before the cycle of the Moon is complete:
Fire, a great deluge, by more ignorant rulers,
How long a century before it is seen to be restored.


According to Roussat the last cycle of the moon ran from 1535 to 1889. The current one will end in the year 2243. Note that in line 3 the world is first punished by fire (Armageddon), then cleansed by water (great deluge).

By using information contained in Quatrain 1.17, I have deduced that the great deluge will last for twenty-seven years, not subsiding until the year 2269. I will explain this calculation near the end of the Chronology.

The end of the current lunar cycle (2243) is mentioned again in the following stanza describing a New Jerusalem and a New Israel:


A new law will occupy a new land
In Syria, Judea, and Palestine:
The great barbarian empire is destroyed
Before the cycle of the Moon is resolved.


It seems that one can not escape this pivotal period (2242 - 2243), not even in Quatrain 1.56:


Sooner and later you will see great changes,
Extreme horrors and vindictiveness:
For so the moon is conducted by its angel,
The heavens draw near to the Balance [Libra].


According to most astrologers, this represents the transit of Pluto in the constellation Libra. The next time this development occurs will be in AD 2231 - 2243.

Interestingly enough, if we subtract 1555, the year Nostradamus first published The Centuries, from 3797 AD, the year he tells his infant son Cesar the world will be physically destroyed, we arrive at the number 2242. If we add the year of the Council of Chalcedon, 451 AD, to 1792, the year of the Common Advent mentioned in the Preface, we again arrive at the year 2242. All of this is only the beginning.

Nostradamian Jean-Charles de Fontbrune uses 2242, of all things, to "prove" through a convoluted and devious mathematical scheme, that Armageddon will occur in the year 1999. Stewart Robb stumbles on the figure calculating the odds against Nostradamus making a lucky guess concerning any year from 1555 to 3797. John Hogue states that the Age of Aquarius will begin to dominate human affairs “at approximately 2250,” based on astrological evidence and passages from the Preface to Cesar.

If all of this is not compelling enough, now we return again to the Hebrew calendar. If we take the 6,000 years the Evangelicals insist on adding to the archeological creation (4000 BC) and instead add them to the first year of the Hebrew calendar (3760 BC) we get the year 2240 AD. The current year in anno domini is 1998; however, in Hebrew it is the year 5758. 2240 AD happens to be the year 6000 in Hebrew.

In 1508, the Abbot Johannes Trithemius, who claimed to communicate with angelic beings, was revealed twenty-one "angel ages" of 354 years and four months each which he contended broke up the whole of human history from the Creation until the end of time. According to Trithemius, the first angel age, which began with the Creation, was presided over by the angel Orisiel (the god Saturn in Roman mythology, as it turns out). The final age, the Age of Michael (Apollo), is scheduled to end in 7441 Anno Mundi which is 2233 AD.

So it would appear, based on the above information, that sometime between 2233 and 2250 humanity will witness the utter destruction of his civilization and the painful, purifying rebirth of the planet by the returned Messiah. Nostradamus seems most insistent on the years 2242 and 2243.

However, my methodology is far from complete. We must, for now, treat 2242 AD as merely another linchpin in our ordering of events—like the year 2025, for example. We must next arrive at other "red banner" years in our effort to break down future history into various periods. Before doing so, let us briefly summarize our linchpins:



Confirming the Evidence

A prophet can only be vindicated if his predictions are fulfilled to the satisfaction of all concerned. Until that time, the only thing that will support a prophecy is evidence and the only thing that will support prophetic evidence is more evidence. Since we have established 2242 as the terminating point of human history, let us see what additional evidence we can uncover to confirm this contention by working backward from it with other information at our disposal.

Most Bible scholars call the last period of human history "the Tribulation" and believe that it will last for seven years. Some believe that the Antichrist (or "the beast" as he is called in Revelation) will rule this entire period even though the Bible quite positively states that his reign will last only forty-two months. Nostradamus tells us in his Epistle to Henry II that there will be plenty of woe to go around before “the infernal prince,” comes to power, principally from two lesser antichrists from the North and the South who will be locked in perpetual struggle. Then the Northern king's ineffectual successor will govern for twenty months during a time of great civil turbulence, continued global warfare between North and South, and a peculiar variety of space-born disasters. This last leader before the Antichrist will, in fact, be killed by strange celestial storms.

If we subtract the seven years of Tribulation from 2242 we arrive at the year 2235. Now, for the sake of consistency, we must see if we can find a quatrain that echoes any of these events which can also be dated to this period.


Jupiter joined more to Venus than the Moon,
Appearing in a white plenitude:
Venus hidden under the whiteness of Neptune
Mars struck by the engraved scepter [Jupiter].


It is an astronomical fact that the orbit of Pluto is so eccentric that it crosses the path of Neptune. Pluto has been inside Neptune's orbit since 1989 and will continue to be until 1998. This occurs every 247.7 years during Pluto's perihelion. The next time this takes place it will be in the year 2236.

It is indicated here that Neptune's magnitude will exceed that of Venus, which could only happen if a collision with Pluto were to knock it closer to the sun and place it inside Jupiter's orbit. Such an event would wreak catastrophe throughout the outer solar system. In the final line Nostradamus foresees a collision or close encounter between Mars and Jupiter, deflecting the red planet on a dangerous path toward the earth.

In Worlds in Collision, Dr. Immanuel Velikovsky discusses the possibility that Mars may have already had a close encounter with the earth about 747 BC during the founding of Rome. Accompanying phenomena included terrifying electrical storms, meteor storms, a displacement of the earth's polar axis, as well as spectacular distortions of both Mars' and Earth's atmospheres. According to Velikovsky, Mars was worshipped as the principal deity in ancient Rome from its founding until long after 747 BC. Many other cultures of that time also engaged in elaborate Mars worship such as the Assyrians who worshipped it under the name of Nergal. Does Nostradamus foresee history repeating itself a short time after 2236 AD with another near collision with Mars attending the foundation of a new Rome during the Age of Tribulation? Such an event could cause the strange electrical storm that kills the Antichrist's predecessor near Dreux, France in Quatrain 9.57.

According to the Bible the Time of Jacob's Trouble will occur during the last 49 years of human history. This period is also referred to by the modern prophet Curtis Gibson as the "Night of Antichrist." Moving backwards through the major prose prophecy in the Epistle to Henry II, we find that prior to Tribulation there will be an era of North-South conflicts concurrent with the duumviral reign in Europe by the Lords of Aquilon. Preceding this is to be a horrible war unleashed by the great Dog and Doham, whom we have determined to be none other than Gog, the land of Magog. If we subtract 49 years from 2242 AD we arrive at the year 2193. So, we search the quatrains:


The great army will pass over the mountains,
Saturn in Sagittarius, Mars moving into Pisces:
Venom hidden under the heads of donkeys,
Their chief is hung by the warlord's son.


According to Wollner the above quatrain is dated by the planets as July 13, 2193. Gog's initial progress would be to cross over the Kazakh Urals from his Tartar seat, then consolidate control throughout southern Russia and the Caucasus. Biological or chemical agents will be fastened beneath the heads of donkeys used to transport supplies over the rugged mountain terrain. The chief who is later executed by Gog's son is probably the Tartar captain or general.

By subtracting 49 years from 2242 AD we arrived at the year 2193 and now we have a quatrain that is actually dated 2193—a match so precise it is almost frightening! But is it possible to determine the end of Gog's war with any degree of certainty? Let us attempt to break down what we know.

If we subtract the 3½ years of the beast's reign from 2242 we arrive at either the year 2238 or 2239, depending on the month Armageddon occurs. For the sake of argument we will say that it will occur in the early spring, not far from Easter. If along with the beast's rule we also subtract his predecessor's twenty month reign from 2242 we get late 2236 AD. Before this, Nostradamus claims that the King of the South will compete with the King of the North, holding much of Europe in his bloody grasp for three years before losing most of his acquisitions during a sudden massive assault from the North. Three subtracted from 2236 is 2233 AD.

Until that time the surviving Aquilonian sovereign will rule Europe for an unspecified period. Before the death of his Russian co-regent, the two together will control Europe and persecute Christianity for eleven years.

However, without a clue as to the length of the surviving Northern king's reign, it is impossible to determine how much time should be subtracted from 2233. Nevertheless, we will at least subtract the eleven years of the Northern duumvirate, keeping in mind that there is still an unquantified x sitting in the wings.

Without a value for x, the difference (2222) does not represent the year beginning the reign of the Lords of Aquilon, but does place it somewhere within the period. We have yet another figure provided us by the prophet: a renewed seven-year period during which a Western triumvirate will rule Europe. It will immediately precede the rule of the Northern monarchs. To bring ourselves closer to the 2193 dating that represents the beginning of Gog's military campaigns, we will subtract 7 from 2222 to arrive at a figure of 2215.

Again, the number 2215 does not necessarily represent a date because we still have the value of x to contend with. The Epistle to Henry II offers us nothing more for us to pin a date on, so we must next consult the quatrains in The Centuries yet again.

It makes sense to conclude that since Gog's wars begin in the year 2193 and that one of the two post-war governments will be in control of Europe in 2215, that the end of World War V must occur somewhere between 2193 and 2215: probably sometime during the first decade of the 23rd Century. It takes much detective work, but persistence pays off when we come across Quatrain 3.56:


Montauban, Nimes, Avignon, and Beziers,
Pestilence, lightning, and hail at the end of the War:
At the bridge of Paris, the wall of Lyon, Montpellier,
Since six hundred and seven twenty-three pairs.


The complicated last line is interpreted by Edgar Leoni (1961) as a mathematical calculation for the year 2208 AD. We are not told what war is coming to an end, but, since the year fits the context of the other events we have been discussing from the Epistle to Henry II, it is most likely that the war ending in line 2 is the global conflict begun by the Mongol Khan. Both Ezekiel and Nostradamus state that many cities throughout the world will be depopulated by fire, hail, and plague at the conclusion of Gog's and the Dog and Dohan’s war. Thus, it appears that the Age of Gog will begin in 2193 and end in 2208. We also now have a value for x: it is 7.

Thus far, our calculations chart for the last 49 years of history—the Night of Antichrist—looks like this:


Reign of the beast
End of the third Northern king's rule
Reign of the third Northern king
Defeat of the King of the South and sudden
death of the second Lord of Aquilon
King of the South captures much of Europe
End of the Northern king's undisputed reign
over the Empire
Reign of the surviving King of the North
Death of the principal Lord of Aquilon and an
end of the Northern Duumvirate
Reign of the two Lords of Aquilon
End of the renewed Western Triumvirate
Rule of the Western Triumvirate renewed
for another seven years
End of World War V (War of Gog)
Duration of Gog's war
Age of Gog begins
- 4 (3.5)
- 2 (1.7)

- 3

- 7 (x)

- 11

- 7
- 15


We can also determine from the above chart that the first Western Triumvirate will be formed in the year 2201 (2208 minus 7 equals 2201).

Prior to the appearance of Gog, Nostradamus predicts a new pagan age will be ushered in after a brief period of religious conflicts and revolution. This era will also be marked by tremendous debauchery and the collapse of the Catholic Church. Like the Republicans of the French Revolution, the people of Europe will attempt to mark the onset of this age with a new calendar. Although we are not given any time windows or other clues to calculate the beginning of this pagan era, were we to seek the solution in the quatrains, we would expect to find it somewhere in the early or middle 22nd Century. So we search The Centuries:


Again the holy temples will be polluted
And pillaged by the Senate of Toulouse,
Saturn two three cycles revolved,
In April, May, people of a new leaven.


According to Roberts, this verse is dated 2150 AD by the cycles of Saturn. In his Preface to Cesar, Nostradamus discusses the exalted cycles of Saturn and the significance of 177-year periods (6 times a cycle of Saturn, 29½ years, equals 177). Here, Roberts adds two such grand cycles to the date of the beginning of the Directory and the Napoleonic era (1795/1796). 1796 plus 177 plus 177 equals 2150 AD.

Corroborative evidence also exists confirming the downfall of the Catholic Church and the onset of a new era marked by humanism, paganism, magic, and various forms of group consciousness around the year 2150. Astrologer Robert de Luce calculates that the cusp of the Aquarian Age—an age to be marked by increased humanism, exotic forms of mysticism, the exchanging of Christian values for pagan, and the exaltation of science and free love—will supersede the current Piscine Age during the year 2157. This is very close to Roberts' calculation. The Abbot Trithemius calculates that magic and sorcery will begin to emerge as a craft that will complement science around the year 2115. Since his angel ages appear to be at variance from Nostradamus' grand lunar cycles by a factor of ten years, the actual date magic debuts as a major force in everyday life may be closer to 2125 AD. Nostradamus describes his version of the Aquarian Age thusly:


To the ancient branch long barren [the resurrected French line of kings] will proceed one who shall deliver the people of the world from a meek and voluntary slavery; putting themselves under the protection of Mars, restoring Jupiter all his honors and dignities .... Then shall the impurities and abominations be objected with great shame, and made manifest to the darkness of the veiled light, and the chief men of the Church shall be put back from the love of God and many of them shall apostatize from the true faith. Of the three sects, Pagan, Catholic, and Mahometan, that which is middlemost, by the actions of its worshippers, shall be thrown into ruins ... by means of the poor in spirit, who by madness elevated shall, through libidinous luxury, commit adultery.


What follows next in the Epistle is the advent of the "great Dog and Dohan" (Gog, the land of Magog). Therefore, we have thus far confirmed that the time limits of the Aquarian Revolution will occur between AD 2150 and 2193.

But what of future history preceding 2150? Before the onset of the Aquarian Age, which paves the way for the malevolent 49-year Night of Antichrist, Nostradamus describes a short period of religious discord and civil insurrection. This is preceded by a sour peace governed by persons reminiscent of Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. Prior to this occurs the Great Peace, a golden age that will last for either 57 or 75 years. This follows the conclusion of World War IV.

According to psychic Jeane Dixon (1969) this war will commence in 2020 between forces allied to China and Russia, leading to an Asian conquest of Russia, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark by 2037. Earlier I discussed Quatrain 1.49 where Henry C. Roberts dated an Asian Islamic invasion of Russia as occurring in 2025. In Quatrain 6.2, Nostradamus also describes the conquest of five Northern kingdoms—the same number of countries predicted by Jeane Dixon. However, unlike Ms. Dixon who dates this event as happening in the year 2037, Roberts calculates the year as 2028. Perhaps Finland and Scandinavia will ally with Russia against the Moslem menace in that year. Ms. Dixon goes on to say that an Arab antichrist will grow influential in the West and involve America and Western Europe in a global war against China and Asian-controlled Russia in the late 2030s.

As I mentioned earlier, Nostradamus, Paracelsus, and Robert Nixon all foresaw an invasion of Europe from the North by Asian and Russian forces. Mother Shipton identified Turkestan ("the Land of the Moon") as the place from which a terrible antichrist would come forth and conquer England. In 1665, Coineach Odhar, also known as the Brahan Seer, described a time when Scotland would be depopulated by a strange barbaric army from the North and the extermination of indigenous wildlife by “horrid black rains.” However, Nostradamus identifies the enemy hordes as originating in the former Mongol lands of Attila the Hun that, in modern terms, would comprise Central Asia, Siberia, and Mongolia. I conclude that Jeane Dixon evidently confused the Red Chinese with these Turko-Tartar people. It is most certainly an understandable confusion considering the geopolitical state of affairs in the late 1960s, the time during which she experienced her vision.

If a fourth global war is to begin with Central Asia, Iran, and Russia facing off against the West and the Arabs in the late 2030s, one might expect to see signs of a resolution in the 2040s or 2050s, if such signs exist, and they do:


In the feeble lists great calamity
Throughout the Hesperides [America] and Insubria [Italy]:
Fire in the ship, pestilence and captivity,
Mercury in Sagittarius, Saturn warning.


Dr. Christian Wollner (1926) dates this stanza by the planets as December 7, 2044. It appears that the Turko-Russian conquest of the West will be completed with horrendous results. But this is not the end of the war. Nostradamus tells us that Europe will be liberated by Christian forces "proceeding from the 48th degree," led by a Gallic leader from the 50th degree of latitude, and that this "Empire of Antichrist" will be utterly vanquished.

When? We would seek a date in the late 2040s or early 2050s. I have already expressed my dissatisfaction with the widely accepted interpretation of Quatrain 3.77. Dated October 1727, it is claimed that it deals with an obscure treaty negotiated between the Ottoman Empire and Persia. But I have serious problems accepting the Turks as "those of Egypt" or Ashraf Shah's defeat of the Turks at Ispahan as the Turkish capture of the "King of Persia." Let us instead take this quatrain at its word: one day Egypt will conquer Iran. Since this has never occurred to my knowledge since the Provencal oracle's time, it must be a prophecy still left for the future.

Following Henry C. Roberts lead and treating this as a Council of Nicaea dating, we add 325 to 1727. The result is 2052 AD. This is consistent with the fact that both Jeane Dixon and Nostradamus consider the Arabs (and therefore Egypt) as allies of the West during the Fourth World War. AD 2052 is also equal to 6000 Year of the World, a reckoning used by ancient historians.

If 2052 is the year during which World War IV ends, it is also the year during which the Great Peace begins. The seer of Salon provides us with the length of this future golden age in the following verse:


From brick to marble will the walls be changed
Fifty-seven pacific years,
Joy to humankind, the aqueduct reopened,
Health, much fruit, joy, and honeyed times.


According to some interpreters, this golden age will last 75 years rather than 57. Again, if any corroboration exists, it would be helpful to use it.

According to Max Toth (1979) and his analysis of the Great Pyramid of Cheops, a period of great peace, materialistic progress, and spiritual expansion will begin in 2055 AD and last until 2115 AD—a length of sixty years. The onset — 2055—is indeed close to the 2052 dating I arrived at. The length of the peace—60 years is also very close to the 57-year era given by Nostradamus. Therefore, one has the option of accepting either the Pyramid prophecy or the prediction of Quatrain 10.89 since they are near enough. I have chosen to mark the parameters of "the great peace," as it is called in the Epistle to Henry II, as AD 2052 - 2109. From 2109 to 2150 the peace will sour and darken leading to wars of religion and civil insurrection, finally culminating in the great Aquarian Revolution and ensuing pagan peace.

If the West is to be locked in conflict with Russia, Central Asia, and Iran in the late 2030s and early 2040s, what will be the state of affairs in Europe and America prior to this global holocaust? Moving backwards through the Epistle we know that a war in Europe will be in progress sometime during the Turko-Russian invasion. We are told that a French civil war will ignite the European conflict, a war that will have been started by three powerful brothers of British descent. However, we do not know exactly when this civil struggle will begin, only that it will begin while Central Asia is at war with Russia. It could begin in 2025, 2030, or even 2035. What we do know is that it is over by 2037, leaving Europe in a weakened and vulnerable state. Nevertheless, knowing the parameters of the Russian-Central Asian aspect of the war, we can say that World War IV will begin in 2025 and last until 2052: a period of twenty-seven years. This is born out in Quatrain 8.77:


Antichrist three very soon annihilated,
Twenty-seven years of blood endures his war.
The heretics dead, captive, exiled.
Blood, human bodies, water, red hail on the earth.


Since the main prophetic chronology of the Epistle to Henry II begins with the joint rule of Europe by the aforementioned three brothers (and their sister's only son), we must turn to what we know from the quatrains to determine previous events. We know that World War III will likely begin sometime around June 2002 but should definitely be over by 2007 or no later than 2009-2010 according to Wollner's astrological analysis of Quatrain 6.24 and clues contained in Quatrain 5.78 regarding the supposed U.S.-Russian alliance ending after "thirteen years" (1993-2006?). This is also supported by the Kali Yuga World Cycles that declare that a violent cycle of wars will begin during the 1996 - 2006 period. According to Nostradamus a great French leader named Chiren, with the help of Russia, will destroy Iraq and defeat Iran and its allies near the end of the war (2009?) and ultimately vanquish North African armies from Italy a short time later (2010-2012?).

The prophet Daniel concurs that a "king of the west" or "great horn" will crush Persian and Median invaders during the "latter days." He also says that this great horn will grow mighty and die a short time later, and be succeeded by "four notable ones": the same four children who appear at the beginning of Nostradamus' prophetic chronicle in the Epistle. Therefore, 2010 - 2030 or 2010 - 2035 may represent a twenty- year or twenty-five- year armistice for Europe, despite a 12-year conflict between neighbouring Russia and Central Asia. This would be analagous to Europe's situation in the 1920s and 1930s, despite Japan's conflicts in the Pacific. For Europe, at least, a substantial lull will be enjoyed between the next two world wars.

As to the Third World War itself—referred to in passing by Nostradamus as "the First Holocaust" in the Epistle—it is left for us to piece together what clues exist in the quatrains, keeping one eye on the news media and the other on the works of Edgar Cayce, Bible prophecy, 20th-Century psychics such as Simon Alexander and Cheiro, and even the prophecies of the Hopi Indians. For the events concerning the years 2001 to 2006 no commentator can be absolutely certain.

For reasons only the great physician, astrologer, and prophet from France could possibly have known, he has left us to puzzle out the next six or seven years while giving us a detailed, blow by blow account of everything that will happen from sometime in the 2009 - 2016 period† until the year 2243. Perhaps this means that it is still within our power to control the events of the next several years, and, if war and catastrophe must come, they need not be as severe as the other horrors written in stone for the 21st Century and beyond.

If there is any credence to the Mayan notion that 2012 will be the year that end times begin, then that will be the year.


One thing is certain—and of this both Nostradamus and the prophet Daniel agree—we cross our Rubicon the day three strategic regions of the world become embroiled in war: the former Soviet Union, the Middle East, and the Balkans. At that time Iran, however peaceful its intentions may seem now, will muster Arab and additional Asian support and invade nations in all three of these regions. Then the final age will truly begin—the "latter days"— and the course of world affairs will follow a predetermined script conceived by the Divine Author many millennia ago. And all efforts by mankind to rewrite that script will be in vain.


Nostradamus and the Final Age © 1998-2006 Michael McClellan


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